Having no Python or Qt experience I'd like to get started with the recent versions (I actually seek to make heavy use of some of the new features announced) but I couldn't find any tutorials (the most seem to use Python 2.x and Qt 4). Could you please share a link to a tutorial or just tell me what exactly do I need to started? I have reasonable experience with other languages and am not asking about learning Python itself in this issue.
Take a look at PyQt.
Here's the Qt5 documentation. When I need help with PyQt, I will look at Qt documentation and "translate" the C++ code into Python.