Why isn't my Pandas 'apply' function referencing multiple columns working?


Question

I have some problems with the Pandas apply function, when using multiple columns with the following dataframe

df = DataFrame ({'a' : np.random.randn(6),
                 'b' : ['foo', 'bar'] * 3,
                 'c' : np.random.randn(6)})

and the following function

def my_test(a, b):
    return a % b

When I try to apply this function with :

df['Value'] = df.apply(lambda row: my_test(row[a], row[c]), axis=1)

I get the error message:

NameError: ("global name 'a' is not defined", u'occurred at index 0')

I do not understand this message, I defined the name properly.

I would highly appreciate any help on this issue

Update

Thanks for your help. I made indeed some syntax mistakes with the code, the index should be put ''. However I still get the same issue using a more complex function such as:

def my_test(a):
    cum_diff = 0
    for ix in df.index():
        cum_diff = cum_diff + (a - df['a'][ix])
    return cum_diff 
1
224
3/4/2019 2:36:10 AM

Accepted Answer

Seems you forgot the '' of your string.

In [43]: df['Value'] = df.apply(lambda row: my_test(row['a'], row['c']), axis=1)

In [44]: df
Out[44]:
                    a    b         c     Value
          0 -1.674308  foo  0.343801  0.044698
          1 -2.163236  bar -2.046438 -0.116798
          2 -0.199115  foo -0.458050 -0.199115
          3  0.918646  bar -0.007185 -0.001006
          4  1.336830  foo  0.534292  0.268245
          5  0.976844  bar -0.773630 -0.570417

BTW, in my opinion, following way is more elegant:

In [53]: def my_test2(row):
....:     return row['a'] % row['c']
....:     

In [54]: df['Value'] = df.apply(my_test2, axis=1)
350
5/3/2013 8:40:31 AM

If you just want to compute (column a) % (column b), you don't need apply, just do it directly:

In [7]: df['a'] % df['c']                                                                                                                                                        
Out[7]: 
0   -1.132022                                                                                                                                                                    
1   -0.939493                                                                                                                                                                    
2    0.201931                                                                                                                                                                    
3    0.511374                                                                                                                                                                    
4   -0.694647                                                                                                                                                                    
5   -0.023486                                                                                                                                                                    
Name: a

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