Python Inverse of a Matrix


Question

How do I get the inverse of a matrix in python? I've implemented it myself, but it's pure python, and I suspect there are faster modules out there to do it.

1
57
7/3/2013 3:02:33 PM

Accepted Answer

You should have a look at numpy if you do matrix manipulation. This is a module mainly written in C, which will be much faster than programming in pure python. Here is an example of how to invert a matrix, and do other matrix manipulation.

from numpy import matrix
from numpy import linalg
A = matrix( [[1,2,3],[11,12,13],[21,22,23]]) # Creates a matrix.
x = matrix( [[1],[2],[3]] )                  # Creates a matrix (like a column vector).
y = matrix( [[1,2,3]] )                      # Creates a matrix (like a row vector).
print A.T                                    # Transpose of A.
print A*x                                    # Matrix multiplication of A and x.
print A.I                                    # Inverse of A.
print linalg.solve(A, x)     # Solve the linear equation system.

You can also have a look at the array module, which is a much more efficient implementation of lists when you have to deal with only one data type.

102
6/13/2017 12:07:43 PM

Make sure you really need to invert the matrix. This is often unnecessary and can be numerically unstable. When most people ask how to invert a matrix, they really want to know how to solve Ax = b where A is a matrix and x and b are vectors. It's more efficient and more accurate to use code that solves the equation Ax = b for x directly than to calculate A inverse then multiply the inverse by B. Even if you need to solve Ax = b for many b values, it's not a good idea to invert A. If you have to solve the system for multiple b values, save the Cholesky factorization of A, but don't invert it.

See Don't invert that matrix.


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