Django ModelForm for Many-to-Many fields


Question

Consider the following models and form:

class Pizza(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=50)

class Topping(models.Model):
    name = models.CharField(max_length=50)
    ison = models.ManyToManyField(Pizza, blank=True)

class ToppingForm(forms.ModelForm):
    class Meta:
        model = Topping

When you view the ToppingForm it lets you choose what pizzas the toppings go on and everything is just dandy.

My questions is: How do I define a ModelForm for Pizza that lets me take advantage of the Many-to-Many relationship between Pizza and Topping and lets me choose what Toppings go on the Pizza?

1
70
12/19/2015 8:52:36 AM

Accepted Answer

I guess you would have here to add a new ModelMultipleChoiceField to your PizzaForm, and manually link that form field with the model field, as Django won't do that automatically for you.

The following snippet might be helpful :

class PizzaForm(forms.ModelForm):
    class Meta:
        model = Pizza

    # Representing the many to many related field in Pizza
    toppings = forms.ModelMultipleChoiceField(queryset=Topping.objects.all())

    # Overriding __init__ here allows us to provide initial
    # data for 'toppings' field
    def __init__(self, *args, **kwargs):
        # Only in case we build the form from an instance
        # (otherwise, 'toppings' list should be empty)
        if kwargs.get('instance'):
            # We get the 'initial' keyword argument or initialize it
            # as a dict if it didn't exist.                
            initial = kwargs.setdefault('initial', {})
            # The widget for a ModelMultipleChoiceField expects
            # a list of primary key for the selected data.
            initial['toppings'] = [t.pk for t in kwargs['instance'].topping_set.all()]

        forms.ModelForm.__init__(self, *args, **kwargs)

    # Overriding save allows us to process the value of 'toppings' field    
    def save(self, commit=True):
        # Get the unsave Pizza instance
        instance = forms.ModelForm.save(self, False)

        # Prepare a 'save_m2m' method for the form,
        old_save_m2m = self.save_m2m
        def save_m2m():
           old_save_m2m()
           # This is where we actually link the pizza with toppings
           instance.topping_set.clear()
           instance.topping_set.add(*self.cleaned_data['toppings'])
        self.save_m2m = save_m2m

        # Do we need to save all changes now?
        if commit:
            instance.save()
            self.save_m2m()

        return instance

This PizzaForm can then be used everywhere, even in the admin :

# yourapp/admin.py
from django.contrib.admin import site, ModelAdmin
from yourapp.models import Pizza
from yourapp.forms import PizzaForm

class PizzaAdmin(ModelAdmin):
  form = PizzaForm

site.register(Pizza, PizzaAdmin)

Note

The save() method might be a bit too verbose, but you can simplify it if you don't need to support the commit=False situation, it will then be like that :

def save(self):
  instance = forms.ModelForm.save(self)
  instance.topping_set.clear()
  instance.topping_set.add(*self.cleaned_data['toppings'])
  return instance
120
8/28/2018 3:07:59 PM

I'm not certain I get the question 100%, so I'm going to run with this assumption:

Each Pizza can have many Toppings. Each Topping can have many Pizzas. But if a Topping is added to a Pizza, that Topping then automagically will have a Pizza, and vice versa.

In this case, your best bet is a relationship table, which Django supports quite well. It could look like this:

models.py

class PizzaTopping(models.Model):
    topping = models.ForeignKey('Topping')
    pizza = models.ForeignKey('Pizza')
class Pizza(models.Model):     
    name = models.CharField(max_length=50) 
    topped_by = models.ManyToManyField('Topping', through=PizzaTopping)
    def __str__(self):
        return self.name
    def __unicode__(self):
        return self.name
class Topping(models.Model):   
    name=models.CharField(max_length=50)
    is_on = models.ManyToManyField('Pizza', through=PizzaTopping)
    def __str__(self):
        return self.name
    def __unicode__(self):
        return self.name

forms.py

class PizzaForm(forms.ModelForm):
    class Meta:
        model = Pizza
class ToppingForm(forms.ModelForm):
    class Meta:
        model = Topping

Example:

>>> p1 = Pizza(name="Monday")
>>> p1.save()
>>> p2 = Pizza(name="Tuesday")
>>> p2.save()
>>> t1 = Topping(name="Pepperoni")
>>> t1.save()
>>> t2 = Topping(name="Bacon")
>>> t2.save()
>>> PizzaTopping(pizza=p1, topping=t1).save() # Monday + Pepperoni
>>> PizzaTopping(pizza=p2, topping=t1).save() # Tuesday + Pepperoni
>>> PizzaTopping(pizza=p2, topping=t2).save() # Tuesday + Bacon

>>> tform = ToppingForm(instance=t2) # Bacon
>>> tform.as_table() # Should be on only Tuesday.
u'<tr><th><label for="id_name">Name:</label></th><td><input id="id_name" type="text" name="name" value="Bacon" maxlength="50" /></td></tr>\n<tr><th><label for="id_is_on">Is on:</label></th><td><select multiple="multiple" name="is_on" id="id_is_on">\n<option value="1">Monday</option>\n<option value="2" selected="selected">Tuesday</option>\n</select><br /> Hold down "Control", or "Command" on a Mac, to select more than one.</td></tr>'

>>> pform = PizzaForm(instance=p1) # Monday
>>> pform.as_table() # Should have only Pepperoni
u'<tr><th><label for="id_name">Name:</label></th><td><input id="id_name" type="text" name="name" value="Monday" maxlength="50" /></td></tr>\n<tr><th><label for="id_topped_by">Topped by:</label></th><td><select multiple="multiple" name="topped_by" id="id_topped_by">\n<option value="1" selected="selected">Pepperoni</option>\n<option value="2">Bacon</option>\n</select><br /> Hold down "Control", or "Command" on a Mac, to select more than one.</td></tr>'

>>> pform2 = PizzaForm(instance=p2) # Tuesday
>>> pform2.as_table() # Both Pepperoni and Bacon
u'<tr><th><label for="id_name">Name:</label></th><td><input id="id_name" type="text" name="name" value="Tuesday" maxlength="50" /></td></tr>\n<tr><th><label for="id_topped_by">Topped by:</label></th><td><select multiple="multiple" name="topped_by" id="id_topped_by">\n<option value="1" selected="selected">Pepperoni</option>\n<option value="2" selected="selected">Bacon</option>\n</select><br /> Hold down "Control", or "Command" on a Mac, to select more than one.</td></tr>'

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