Numpy array, how to select indices satisfying multiple conditions?


Question

Suppose I have a numpy array x = [5, 2, 3, 1, 4, 5], y = ['f', 'o', 'o', 'b', 'a', 'r']. I want to select the elements in y corresponding to elements in x that are greater than 1 and less than 5.

I tried

x = array([5, 2, 3, 1, 4, 5])
y = array(['f','o','o','b','a','r'])
output = y[x > 1 & x < 5] # desired output is ['o','o','a']

but this doesn't work. How would I do this?

1
121
2/28/2012 10:14:50 PM

Accepted Answer

Your expression works if you add parentheses:

>>> y[(1 < x) & (x < 5)]
array(['o', 'o', 'a'], 
      dtype='|S1')
186
6/13/2010 12:50:32 AM

IMO OP does not actually want np.bitwise_and() (aka &) but actually wants np.logical_and() because they are comparing logical values such as True and False - see this SO post on logical vs. bitwise to see the difference.

>>> x = array([5, 2, 3, 1, 4, 5])
>>> y = array(['f','o','o','b','a','r'])
>>> output = y[np.logical_and(x > 1, x < 5)] # desired output is ['o','o','a']
>>> output
array(['o', 'o', 'a'],
      dtype='|S1')

And equivalent way to do this is with np.all() by setting the axis argument appropriately.

>>> output = y[np.all([x > 1, x < 5], axis=0)] # desired output is ['o','o','a']
>>> output
array(['o', 'o', 'a'],
      dtype='|S1')

by the numbers:

>>> %timeit (a < b) & (b < c)
The slowest run took 32.97 times longer than the fastest. This could mean that an intermediate result is being cached.
100000 loops, best of 3: 1.15 µs per loop

>>> %timeit np.logical_and(a < b, b < c)
The slowest run took 32.59 times longer than the fastest. This could mean that an intermediate result is being cached.
1000000 loops, best of 3: 1.17 µs per loop

>>> %timeit np.all([a < b, b < c], 0)
The slowest run took 67.47 times longer than the fastest. This could mean that an intermediate result is being cached.
100000 loops, best of 3: 5.06 µs per loop

so using np.all() is slower, but & and logical_and are about the same.


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