Best practice for Python assert


  1. Is there a performance or code maintenance issue with using assert as part of the standard code instead of using it just for debugging purposes?


    assert x >= 0, 'x is less than zero'

    better or worse than

    if x < 0:
        raise Exception, 'x is less than zero'
  2. Also, is there any way to set a business rule like if x < 0 raise error that is always checked without the try/except/finally so, if at anytime throughout the code x is less than 0 an error is raised, like if you set assert x < 0 at the start of a function, anywhere within the function where x becomes less then 0 an exception is raised?

6/11/2018 6:46:00 PM

Accepted Answer

To be able to automatically throw an error when x become less than zero throughout the function. You can use class descriptors. Here is an example:

class LessThanZeroException(Exception):

class variable(object):
    def __init__(self, value=0):
        self.__x = value

    def __set__(self, obj, value):
        if value < 0:
            raise LessThanZeroException('x is less than zero')

        self.__x  = value

    def __get__(self, obj, objType):
        return self.__x

class MyClass(object):
    x = variable()

>>> m = MyClass()
>>> m.x = 10
>>> m.x -= 20
Traceback (most recent call last):
  File "<stdin>", line 1, in <module>
  File "", line 7, in __set__
    raise LessThanZeroException('x is less than zero')
LessThanZeroException: x is less than zero
12/2/2015 3:24:18 PM

Asserts should be used to test conditions that should never happen. The purpose is to crash early in the case of a corrupt program state.

Exceptions should be used for errors that can conceivably happen, and you should almost always create your own Exception classes.

For example, if you're writing a function to read from a configuration file into a dict, improper formatting in the file should raise a ConfigurationSyntaxError, while you can assert that you're not about to return None.

In your example, if x is a value set via a user interface or from an external source, an exception is best.

If x is only set by your own code in the same program, go with an assertion.

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